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Is there a world beyond the earthly, one surrounding them? Is man unique among the animals? What is the ultimate cause of all things? What is common in everything? Etc 3. The solutions they gave to these puzzles were shortly thereafter dubbed philosophy, the love of wisdom. Appearance often differs from reality. There are brute facts of birth, death, growth and decay coming into being and passing away.

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These events puzzled the Greek and they sought explanations. He was a great poet. In these poetic times, Homer describes the scene of mount Olympus, where the gods pursued lives quite similar to that of their human counterparts on earth. This poetic view of the world also depicted ways in which the gods intruded into people; affairs. In particular the Homeric gods would punish the people for their lack of moderation and especially for their pride or insubordination.

It is not that homer gods were exceptionally moral beings. Instead, they were merely stranger than homers and demanded obedience.

They were immoral as human were but humans were worse according to the Greek mythical consciousness. Homer suggests that there is a power called f to which the gods are subject; and to which everything else must be subordinate. It was Hesiod living the same time with Homer , who altered this concept of the gods and fate.

He thus removed from gods, all capriciousness and inscribes in them a moral consistency. The moral order is still the product of a Zews. He commands the universe a moral order without any reference to the gods. Hellas Greece As it has been proven, the earliest thinkers of Hellas among the Greeks were poets, the interpreters of traditional Religions Myth Makers: like Homer and Hesiod and sometimes prophets like Epi-menides of Cnossos who purified Athens from pestilence by erecting alters to unnamed divinities, were renown wise men. Greek philosophy, as Aristotle later showed started with Thales of Miletes.

By things, he referred to the earth, clouds, oceans etc from time to time, some of these things change into something else, and yet they still resemble each other in certain ways. The many are related to each other by one. He assumed that some single element, some stuff, a stuff which contained its own principle of action or change lay the foundation of all physical reality is in all things.

To him, the one, the stuff water. That is to say for Thales, water is the cause of all things.

Book Knowledge And Mind A Philosophical Introduction Chapter 3

Water is the origin of the nature of moist things. With that starting point, others were to. He agreed with Thales that there is some single stuff out of which everybody comes. Water is only one specific thing among many other elements. This is indefinite boundless. The source of things is indeterminate. He suggested that people evolved from creature of a different kind fishes.

He argued followed from the fact that other creatures are quickly self supporting, where humans alone need prolonged nursing and that therefore we would not have survived if this had been our original form. Man was formed within the bodies of fishes where he developed being ejected as soon as he became sufficiently large to provide for himself. He chose to focus upon a defmite substance as Thales did not something vague iii Attempting to meditate between Thales and Anaximander, he designed air as the primary substance from which things come.

It is the root of all things. We live only as we can breath, air holds us together.

By Bertrand Russell

Air is spread everywhere although unlike the boundless, it is specific and tangible material substance that can be identified. Expansion of air causes warming, while condensation cooling and transformation of air into solids by the way of gradual transients. The greatest time greeted condensation is to be found in stones.

NB: the greatness of the Milesian school of thought is that they raised the question about the ultimate nature of things. This school understood that there existed realities of a higher order than those perceived by the senses. But it was the study of numbers that he had arrives at the knowledge of these invisible realities, whose immutable order dominated and determined the process of becoming and hence forward, he had understanding only in numbers. He taught that numbers by which harmony is related in our senses- are the soul true reality, and regarded them as the very existence of things.

He was conversant with oriental astromonary. And by his fundamental discovery of the relationship between pitch of sounds and the length of vibrating strings, he reduced to the rigidly of numerical a phenomenon like sound. He passed from the sign to the cause and made symbol the principle of reality. Every essence is a number.


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The number 4 is not only the essence of Justice but constitutes the essence of justice. Number three constitute Holiness 7, times 8, harmony 5, the union of the sexes- 10 perfection. Pythagoras was however not able to arrive at the formal cause-whose full dedication was reserved to Aristotle alone. It is to Pythagoras, as we have noted that we awe the philosophy love of wisdom He said; Human life can be compared to the public games, which attract all sorts of men. Some came to complete for honor and crown of victory, other to trade, others, the noble sort, solely for the enjoyment of the spectable.

Similarly in life, some work for honor, others for profit, a few for the truth alone, they are the philosophers He was the first to call the universe cosmos KO 5MOS , which like Latin mundus, convey the idea of beauty and harmony. He advanced from Jonian philosophers and came out with reality of change or becoming. His vision was so fixed on the change which things undergo that he declares that change alone is real.

All things are in a flux and men are fools to trust in the stability of their false happiness when they are born, they wish to live and to meet their doom- or rather to rest- and they leave children behind them to meet their doom in turn. We do not touch the same thing twice nor the twice in the same river.

The very moment we touch an object it has already ceased to be what it was before. What exists changes from the very fact of its existence?


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We step, but not step in the same river; we are and not. Moreover, contraries must be pronouns identical. The sea is the purest and impure water good and evil are one.

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Heraclites said that you do not expect the unexpected, you will not find truth for it is hard to be sought out and difficult. Heraclites is therefore the philosopher of evolution and becoming. Transcending the world of sensible phenomena and even that of mathematical forms or essences and numbers, he attained to what are things which are kindly and strictly the object of the intellect that things exist, their being. The notion of being thus abstracted impressed Parmenides so powerfully that it fascinated him. As his contemporary, Heraclites was a slave of change, Parmenides was a slave being.

He had eyes for one thing alone; what is, and cannot be.